|
|
|
ancient art
|
|
|
focus
characters
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
horoscope matching
|
|
|
Shopping
 
Chinese History
Xia Dynasty

Xia Dynasty Overview

While the traditional accounts about the Xia Dynasty were long dispised as pure mythical accounts, the discovering of the Anyang oracle bones and the verification of the traditional ruler lists of the Shang Dynasty make it possible that at least the ruler lists given in histories like the Shiji and the Bamboo Annals are partially true.

For many years, the Xia Dynasty were legends, but no archaeological evidence was found of it until 1959. Excavations at Erlitous, in the city of Yanshi, uncovered what was most likely a capital of the Xia Dynasty. The site showed that the people were direct ancestors of the Lungshan and were predecessors of the Shang. Radiocarbon dates from this site indicate that they existed from 2100 to 1800 B.C. And especially in the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. Despite this new archaeological evidence of the Xia, they are not universally accepted as a true dynasty.

 

Yu the Great

At the later period of the Primitive Society, the Abdication System was widely used by the tribes. When Yu the Great became old, he had planned to abdicate his throne to Boyi, who had assisted him in his great work of flood control. However, after Yu died, his son Qi, took advantage of his privileged situation and power, killed Boyi and succeeded to the throne. The hereditary dynasty established by Qi is known as the Xia Dynasty, which was the first dynasty in China. From that time on a Hereditary System replaced the Abdication System and China became a society based on slavery.

 

However, from Sima Qian on, historians in later dynasties mostly regarded Yu the Great as the founder of the Xia Dynasty. The Xia Dynasty lasted over 400 years from the 21st century BC to the 17th century BC. In total there were seventeen kings over fourteen generations.

Yu's son Jing was the first ruler in China who directly succeeded to his father. Before, all emperors had not chosen their own sons as successors, but a noble and worthy man. Under king Tai Kang a rebellion of the king's five brothers endangered the untiy of the kingdom. His brother and successor Zhong Di was unable to control his ministers Xi and He who engaged in lust and selfishness. During this years, the Lord of Yin attacked the two potentates. After several generations, King Kong Jia again endangered the royal line.

In this new kind of social system, the ruling class inevitably lacked the necessary experience to govern the country. During their four-hundred-year reign, internal conflicts and power struggles continually caused trouble for the dynastic rulers. At the end of the Xia Dynasty, external aggression and internal conflict became ever more serious. Upon his succession to the throne, Jie, regardless of the chaos within the state, lived for pleasure. He, known as a cruel and depraved tyrant, cavorted with his concubines all day and night while ordering the construction of many gorgeous palaces for his personal enjoyment. Tang, the chief of the Shang tribe, led a revolution which resulted in the overthrow of the despotic Jie. Xia was conquered by Tang, and a new era had begun, the Shang-dynasty was founded.

Xia's Palace

The Xia were agrarian people, with bronze weapons and pottery. The ruling families used elaborate and dramatic rituals to confirm their power to govern. The rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with spirits for help and guidance.

Although the ideal Society of Great Harmony was replaced with an autocratic regime, the establishment of the Xia Dynasty represents a huge advancement in the evolution of China. top
 

Single Rank Bell Ensembles
Bronze Bell
Bronze Bell